First, the DNA code for the protein had to be altered to make the "spelling" compatible with the nucleus, since ND4 suffers from the "code disparity" problem I discussed earlier. Then, the researchers had to tag on a "targeting sequence" 9 4 E N D I N G A G I N G copied from a completely different gene (aldehyde dehydrogenase) to guide it into the mitochondria. Next, they had to figure out a way to get the gene into the nucleus in the first place; this was accomplished using a trick borrowed from viruses that sneak their DNA into their infectees' nuclei. And finally, they attached an additional sequence to the gene to allow it to be picked up by the gene-decoding machinery of the nucleus, so that it would be "read" and turned into a protein. Given the need for so many alterations to the original gene, borrowed from so many different inspirations, you might reasonably be concerned that something would fail somewhere along the way. But no.

Aubrey de Grey, book

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